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Base stations' parameters

This topic lists the base stations' parameters that are used for the following task:

In this menu all parameters are read-only unless otherwise notified.

Base station Name
  • The name given to the base station when it has been added to the network (Editable).

Base station Model
  • Name of the model.

  • Name of the company that produces the base station.

  • Long-Range Relay Universally Unique Identifier, that is the base station Universally Unique Identifier. The base station Universal Unique Identifier (LRR UUID) is a concatenation of LRR OUI and LRR GUID.

  • <LRR-OUI> is the IEEE OUI of the base station vendor (6 hexadecimal characters).
    <LRR-GID> is the base station identifier relatively to the vendor (allowed characters: [0-9][a-z]-_, max 256 characters)

  • Kerlink: <LRR-GID> = full eth0 MAC address

  • Cisco: <LRR-GID> = full Cisco S/N

  • Base station network Identifier allocated by the network and unique within the network.

  • Base station network Identifier, unique within the network (allocated by network).

  • LRR ID (32 bits) is automatically generated and dynamically associated with the LRR.

LRR Software Version
  • Version of the Long-Range Relay software installed on the base station.

  • A specific widget close to the field of this parameter shows the base station’s versions. This includes:

    • Base station Firmware Version that is installed on the base station

    • Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Firmware Version that is installed on the base station

    • Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL) Version that is linked with the LRR software running of the base station

    • Hardware Version (indicated, if available)

    • OS Version (indicated, if available)

    • Custom Build Version (indicated, if available)

    • Configuration Version(indicated, if available)

      Note When providing the list of LRR software packages available for upgrade, only LRR software packages compatible with the firmware version and the FPGA version currently installed on the targeted base station are offered.

SW Version
  • LRR software version that has been installed on the base station.

SW Restart
  • Software last restart time.

RF Region
  • The LoRaWAN® specification “LoRaWAN® Regional Parameters”, defines several RF profiles depending on the regional RF regulatory context. These regional parameters are grouped into a set of radio parameters along with a frequency allocation that is adapted to the ISM Band called RF Region.

Time Synchronization (NTP)
  • Time synchronization using Network Synchronization Protocol (NTP); refers to base station clock synchronization service.

Advanced geolocation configuration
  • The following parameters must be configured in order to improve the network geolocation:

  • RF antenna configuration:

    • RF antenna position (latitude/longitude): Exact position of the RF antenna. This information is particularly required when the RF antennas are installed few meters away from the base station box. If not specified, the base station position is used.

    • RF antenna altitude above sea level (in meters): indicates the vertical distance between the WGS84 reference ellipsoid and the cable connector on the antenna.

    • RF antenna height above the ground level (in meters): indicates the vertical distance between the ground and the cable connector on the antenna.

    • RF antenna cable delay (in nanoseconds), this information could be either derived from field measurements or directly estimated from the cable’s electrical specification provided in its datasheet.

  • GPS antenna configuration:

    • GPS antenna cable delay (in nanoseconds), either derived from field measurements or through cable datasheet.

  • FPGA board fine timestamp decryption key:

    • License key allowing the base station software to read high precision timestamps. These timestamps are used to enhance the devices' geolocation. Contact your base station vendor to obtain this key.

    • This decryption key is specific to each LoRa® board; it is delivered by Semtech (the LoRa® chip manufacturer).

Last Uplink
  • Last packets that were sent from a LoRaWAN® device and received by the base station.

Last Downlink
  • Last packets were transmitted by the base station.

Radio traffic history
  • History of radio traffic (uplink/downlink) on a base station. It gives a view of the network activity over time.

  • LoRaWAN® frames are presented with decoded frame headers and MAC commands, payload remains encrypted.

  • User data carried by the LoRaWAN® frame.

  • Round-trip communication time between the base station and the Network Server.

Backhaul network Traffic
  • Packets exchanged between the base station and the Network Server, and from the Network Server to the base station.

Spreading Factor (SF)
  • Determines the data rate used during transmission. LoRaWAN® SF range is [7...12]: SF7 corresponds to the fastest data rate (~5.5 kbits/sec) while SF12 corresponds to the slowest data rate (~250 bits/sec) in consideration of the LoRaWAN® regional configuration.

SNR (Noise)
  • Signal to Noise Ratio

  • Determines the ratio between the received LoRaWAN® signal strength of the desired signal and the signal strength of the background noise. Unlike conventional radio technologies, LoRaWAN® reception does not require positive SNR, you may see correct reception of LoRaWAN® frames with negative SNR up to -20 dB (SF12).

RSSI (Signal Strength)
  • Received Signal Strength Indicator.

  • Determines the total received signal strength over a given Logical Channel, summing up both the desired signal and the background noise. When SNR is negative, this effectively measures the background noise.

Duty Cycle
  • Uplink Duty Cycle determines the aggregated effective reception time by the base station over a given channel for all received devices, over a time window (typically one hour). Due to ALOHA network technology of LoRaWAN®, Uplink Duty Cycle should stay below about 10%. Increase macro diversity by adding base stations, if the Duty Cycle gets above 10%.

  • Downlink Duty Cycle determines the aggregated transmission time of the base station over a given channel, over a granularity period (typically one hour).

  • Logical Channel

  • A LoRaWAN® logical channel is characterized by its central radio frequency and bandwidth. For example, in ISM band eu868 profile default settings, LC1 refers to a center frequency = 868.1 MHz and a channel bandwidth of 125 kHz.

  • Simultaneous transmissions using different Logical Channels do not interfere with each other. Within a given Logical Channel, transmissions with different Spreading Factors also have a high degree of isolation.

Asymmetric downlink channel
  • Channels that are used for downlink messages for specific ISM bands, using different frequency than uplink channels. Asymmetric downlink channels are used for instance in US915 RF region.

System load
  • CPU, RAM and disk usage are indicators of the system load of the base station.

  • Central Processing Unit usage of the base station.

  • RAM usage of the base station.

  • Disk usage of the base station, often Flash memory disk.

X.509 certificate
  • An X.509 certificate is a digital certificate that uses the widely accepted international X.509 public key infrastructure (PKI) standard to verify that a public key belongs to the user, computer or service identity contained within the certificate.

Additional information
  • Any useful information related to the base station. It can be where you want to install the base station. It can be for instance, a room for checking humidity.

  • Technique used to locate the base station.

    • Manual mode: the position of the base station is expressed by its latitude and its longitude that are manually set by the base station administrator.

    • Onboard Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) position (default position): the position of the base station is expressed by its latitude and its longitude, which is automatically reported by a GPS receiver located on the base station.

  • If the base station has a GPS receiver and can receive a stable GPS signal, the “Onboard GNSS position” mode should be used. Otherwise, the “Manual” mode should be used.

If the segregation based on domains has been enabled by an administrator user, the editable Domains parameter contains the list of domains associated with the base station. If your user account has domain restrictions, the selected domains must match your domain restrictions without any domain prefix (only full domains can be assigned to resources). See Domains for more details.